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f:489 -    Who should give Sadq Fitr and when?
Country : India,
Name : Abdul Ghafoor
Question:     On whom is Zakaat Wajib and on whom is Fitrah Wajib?
Answer:     Zakaat is an Islamic duty, which is obligatory on everyone who has 60 gm 755 mg gold or 425 gm 285 mg silver.

Apart from gold and silver, it is obligatory to give Zakaat on liquid cash, goods of trade, shares, etc. if they reach meet the prescribed criteria and 1 year has passed on them.  While calculating Zakaat, the amount which is given as loan to somebody will also be included.  This includes the amount kept in banks as fixed deposit and also the amount given to somebody for safekeeping.

In the same way, if land, flats, complexes, etc. are given on hire and their rent reaches the prescribed limits of Zakaat and 1 year is passed on it, then Zakaat must be given on it.

As far as Zakaat on goods in concerned, Zakaat is to be given on them if and only if they are bought for trade purpose.  The condition here is that the cost of the trade goods should meet the criteria of Zakaat and 1 year should have passed on it.  The cars, clothes, etc. which are kept in showrooms are obviously there for trade and the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) has commanded us to give Zakaat of trade goods:

Translation of Hadith:  It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Samurra Bin Jundub (May Allah be well pleased with him) would command us to give Zakaat of those goods, which we would prepare for selling.  (Sunan Abu Dawood, Hadith No. 1546)

Thus, if the cost of trade goods meets the criteria of Zakaat, then Zakaat is Wajib on them.  If it had already reached it in the beginning of the year and the goods were increased during the year, then Zakaat is Wajib on the whole amount.  If the price of the goods increases during the year, then the price at then end of year will be considered while calculating Zakaat.  As given in Fatawa A'alamgiri, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 175/179.

Zakaat is not Wajib on things, which are given for hire.  However, it is Wajib on the rent got from them, if it meets the aforementioned criteria.

In light of this, we can say that Zakaat is not Wajib on cars, houses, complexes, articles given by supplying companies, etc. which are given for hire.  Zakaat is Wajib on the rent gotten from them.  As given in Fatawa Tatarkhaniya on the footnotes of Fatawa A'alamgiri, Vol. 1, Pg. No. 251.

As given in Fatawa A’alamgiri, Sadqa Fitr is Wajib on that person who has wealth which reaches the prescribed limits and which is beyond the basic necessities of life and that person should be free of debt.  The prescribed limit (Nisab) is the same as Zakaat, but for Sadqa Fitr, there is no condition that the wealth should be of an increasing kind (like gold, silver or commercial goods) or that 1 year should have passed on it.   (Fatawa A’alamgiri, Vol 1, Pg No: 193)

Sadqa Fitr becomes Wajib as soon as the day of Eid dawns.  The time limit for Sadqa Fitr is the whole life itself and can be given any time, but it is Mustahab to give it on the day of Eid before going to the Eidgah.   It can be given after the Salaat Ul EId as well.  It should be kept in mind that as long as it is not given, it remains Wajib and must be given, no matter how long a time passes.  As given in Fatawa A’alamgiri, Vol. 1, Pg. No.: 192.

And Allah Most High knows best.

Mufti Syed Ziauddin Naqshbandi Qadri,

[Shaykh ul Fiqh, Jamia Nizamia,
Founder-Director, Abul Hasanaat Islamic Research Center]
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