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Eid ul Fitr- A summary of its rules and proprieties

Eid ul Fitr- A summary of its rules and proprieties

Excerpted from Noor ul Masabeeh, Vol. 3

 

The first day of the month of Shawwaal is called ‘Eid ul Fitr and the 10th of Dhul Hijjah is called ‘Eid ul Azha.  Both these days are days of ‘Eid (celebration) and happiness in Islam.  On both these days, offering 2 Raka’ah by way of thankfulness is Imperative.  The conditions which make a Friday Salaat valid and Imperative, all of them apply to the Salaat of both ‘Eid as well.  The exception is that of the Khutba which is Obligatory and a condition in Friday Salaat and is said before the Salaat whereas in the Salaat of ‘Eid it is not Obligatory, but a Sunnah and is said after the Salaat.  However, listening to the Khutba of ‘Eid is Imperative like listening to the Khutba of Friday.  Which means that talking, offering Salaat, etc. during the Khutba of ‘Eid is all Forbidden.

For ‘Eid ul Fitr, thirteen acts are established by the Sunnah.  To adorn and beautify oneself as per the Shariah, which means taking a bath, using the tooth-stick, wearing the best clothes that one has, wearing fragrance, awakening up very early in the morning, going to the ‘Eidgah very early, eating something sweet like dates, etc. before going to the ‘Eidgah, giving the charity of Fitr before going to the ‘Eidgah, offering the Salaat of ‘Eid in the ‘Eidgah, i.e. not offering it in the mosques of the city without a pressing need.  Going by one way and returning by another, going on foot, reciting Allaahu akbar Allaahu akbar laa ilaaha illallaahu Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar wa lillaahil hamd softly.

For ‘Eid ul Azha as well, all the above acts are established by the Sunnah.  The difference is that for ‘Eid ul Fitr, it is established by the Sunnah to have something before going to the ‘Eidgah and for ‘Eid ul Azha, it is not.  For ‘Eid ul Fitr, it is established to recite the Takbeer softly on the way whereas for ‘Eid ul Azha, one should say it in a (reasonably) loud voice.  For ‘Eid ul Azha, there is no charity of Fitr to be given.  Instead, those who have the means should sacrifice animal/s.  There is no Adhaan or Iqaamah for either of these Salaat.  (Taken from Noor ul Eedhaa and Durre Mukhtaar)

Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran:

(It is a great favor of Almighty Allah that He ordered us to fast in the blessed month of Ramadhan, which purifies the heart and reforms the Self, that is why o Muslims!) after the blessed month of Ramadhan offer the Salaat of ‘‘Eid, in which Takbeer are said in a large number, to glorify Allah Most High and to thank Him (for guiding us to fast in the month of Ramadhan and thereby reforming our Self).  Surah Baqarah (2:185)

Almighty Allah says in the Holy Quran:

(Muslims!  Your fellow Muslims have gone to Makkah for Hajj and are offering Salaat in Makkah and are sacrificing animals in Mina.  You are in your country, bereft of this.  Don’t be downhearted for this) Go the ‘Eidgah and offer Salaat of ‘Eid and sacrifice animal/s after it (do in your country what the Hajis are doing and develop a resemblance with them).  Surah Kausar (108:2)

It is a Compulsory Sunnah to offer Salaat ul ‘Eid in the ‘Eidgah

It is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Sa’eed Khudri (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would go to the ‘Eidgah on the days of ‘Eid ul Fitr and ‘Eid ul Azha (that’s why offering Salaat ul ‘Eid in the ‘Eidgah is a Compulsory Sunnah.  When the Salaat of ‘Eid is offered in the local mosques, the Salaat itself is valid, but the one who does so without aa pressing need will be considered to have forsaken a Compulsory Sunnah (as given in ‘Umdatur Ria’aaya).  Upon going to the ‘Eidgah the first thing that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would do would be to offer the Salaat of ‘‘Eid (before Salaat of ‘Eid, there would be no Salaat in the ‘Eidgah and the Prophet would not give any sermon before the Salaat of ‘‘Eid.  Instead, after offering Salaat of ‘Eid, for the Khutba) He would stand facing the people.  People would be sitting in their respective rows facing the Prophet to listen to the Khutba.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would advise the people as per the need of the time and would issue commands and if there was a need to send an army to some place, he would separate one section of the army for it; or if the Prophet desired to give a command regarding something, he would give it then.  Then he would return home from the ‘Eidgah.

Bukhari and Muslim have unanimously related this Hadith.

There is neither Adhaan nor Iqaamah for Salaat of ‘‘Eid

It is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Jabir bin Samurah (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says:  Not just once or twice, I have offered the Salaat of ‘Eid alongside the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) many times without Adhaan or Iqaamah for it.

(This establishes that there is no Adhaan or Iqaamah for Salaat of ‘Eid)

Muslim has related this Hadith.

The Khutba of ‘Eid should be said after Salaat of ‘Eid

It is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Abdullah bin 'Umar (May Allah be well pleased with them), he says:  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and like him, Hadhrat Abu Bakr and Hadhrat 'Umar (May Allah be well pleased with them) would first offer the Salaat of ‘Eid ul Fitr and ‘Eid ul Azha and would then say the Khutba of ‘Eid.

Bukhari and Muslim have unanimously related this Hadith.

There is no Supererogatory Salaat before or after ‘Eid Salaat in the Eidgah

It is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Sa’eed Khudri (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would not offer any (Supererogatory) Salaat (on the day of ‘‘Eid neither in the house nor in the ‘Eidgah.  Similarly, he would not offer any Supererogatory Salaat in the ‘Eidgah after the Salaat of ‘Eid).  When he would return to his house from the ‘Eidgah, he would offer 2 Raka’ah Supererogatory Salaat in his house.

Ibn Majah has related this Hadith.  (The same details are mentioned in Durre Mukhtaar and Radd ul Muhtaar)

For Salaat of ‘Eid ul Fitr, it is a Sunnah to eat something before going to the ‘Eidgah

It is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Anas (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says that on the day of ‘Eid ul Fitr, the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would not go to the Eidgah without eating some dates and these dates would had in odd numbers (this shows that for ‘Eid ul Fitr it is a Sunnah to eat something and then go to the Eidgah).

Bukhari has related this Hadith.

It is a Sunnah to go to the Eidgah by a route and return via another

It is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Jabir (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says that on the day of ‘‘Eid, the Holy Prophet would go the Eidgah by 1 route and return to the house via another.

Bukhari has related this Hadith.

Description of the additional Takbeer of ‘Eid

It is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Hamza Abu ‘Amaarah (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says:  I have heard Imam Sha’abi (May Allah be well pleased with him) say:  There are 3 extra Takbeer in each Raka’ah of ‘Eid Salaat, which are over and above the (usual) Takbeer of Salaat.

Tahaawi has related this Hadith.

That the Salaat of ‘Eid ul Azha should be offered early and that of ‘Eid ul Fitr should of offered a bit late

It is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abul Huwayrith (May Allah be well pleased with him), he says that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) wrote to Amr bin Hazm, the governor of Najraan that the Salaat of ‘Eid ul Azha should be offered early (so that it is convenient for people to sacrifice their animals) and the Salaat of ‘Eid ul Fitr should be offered late (when compared to the Salaat of ‘Eid ul Azha so that the charity of Fitr can be distributed and the poor folk can take the charity of Fitr and then come to the ‘Eidgah).  Advise people in the Khutba (especially regarding the charity of Fitr and regarding sacrifice of an animal).

Imam Shaf’iee (May Allah shower His Mercy on him) has related this Hadith.

If one cannot offer Salaat of ‘Eid due to any extenuating circumstance, then until what time can one offer it

Abu ‘Umayr (May Allah be well pleased with him) had many paternal uncles and all of them were Companions of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  Abu ‘Umayr relates on their authority that in a particular year, the crescent was not visible in Madina on the night of the 29th of Ramadhan.  Thus, all the Companions fasted on the next day.  A caravan mounted on camels came to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) (after noon).  They testified before the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) that they had seen the crescent on the eve of the 30th.  (this showed that Ramadhan had ended on the 29th itself and that day was not the 30th of Ramadhan but the 1stof Shawwal.  As all the members of the caravan testified to the same) The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) ordered everyone to break their fast (as unknowingly they were fasting on the day of ‘‘Eid, which is not permissible.  The time for Salaat of ‘Eid is till high noon only and after high noon there can be no ‘Eid Salaat.  Thus, ‘Eid Salaat should not be offered on that day).  All of them should come to the ‘Eidgah on the next day (and ‘Eid Salaat will be offered the next day instead of on that day.  If by chance, one cannot offer ‘Eid Salaat on the 2nd day also, then ‘Eid Salaat should not be offered on the 3rd day, as its time has concluded.  However, if the Salaat of ‘Eid ul Azha could not be offered even on the 2nd day, then it can be offered on the 3rd day as well)

Abu Dawood, Nasaai, Daraqutni and Ibn Majah have related this Hadith and Daraqutni has said that the chain of narration of this Hadith is Hasan.  ‘Abdul Haqq and Bayhaqui have also declared this Hadith to be Saheeh.

 

 
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